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MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales


 

RCd  (dem)  Demoralization
RC1  (som)  Somatic Complaints
RC2  (lpe)  Low Positive Emotions
RC3  (cyn)  Cynicism
RC4  (asb)  Antisocial Behavior
RC6  (per)  Ideas of Persecution
RC7  (dne)  Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
RC8  (abx)  Aberrant Experiences
RC9  (hpm)  Hypomanic Activation

 

In 2003 the University of Minnesota Press introduced the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales by Auke Tellegen, Ph.D., the first variant version of the Clinical Scales developed by S. R. Hathaway and J. C. McKinley for the original MMPI, published in 1943.  Tellegen's goal in developing the scales was "to preserve the valuable predictive features of the existing Clinical Scales while attempting to improve their distinctiveness."

A detailed account of the development and validation of the scales is provided in a test monograph, "The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales (RC) Scales: Development, Validation, and Interpretation," by Auke Tellegen, Yossef Ben-Porath, John McNulty, Paul Arbisi, John Graham, and Beverly Kaemmer, available from Pearson Assessments.

 

 

MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scale Selected References


Abraham, P. P. (2005). What's in a name? Bridges to new understanding: MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales. SPA Exchange, 17, 3-5.

Arbisi, P. A., Sellbom, M., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (In Press). Empirical correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Archer, R. P. (2006). A perspective on the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scale project. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 179-185.

Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2003). Introducing the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales. SPA Exchange, 15, 16-17, 23.

Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2006). Differentiating normal and abnormal personality with the MMPI-2. In S. Strack (Ed.), Differentiating normal and abnormal personality (2nd Edition, pp. 337-381). NY: Springer.

Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (In Press). Empirical correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in mental health, forensic, and non-clinical settings: An introduction. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Butcher, J. N. (2006). MMPI-2: A Practitioners Guide. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Butcher, J. N., Hamilton, C. K., Rouse, S. V., & Cumella, E. J. (2006). The deconstruction of the Hy Scale of MMPI-2: Failure of RC3 in measuring somatic symptom expression. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 186-192.

Caldwell, A. B. (2006). Maximal measurement or meaningful measurement: The interpretive challenges of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment 87, 193-201.

Castro, Y., Gordon, K. H., Brown, J. S., Cox, J. C., & Joiner, T. E. (In Press).  Examination of racial differences on the MMPI-2 Clinical and Restructured Clinical Scales in an outpatient sample. Assessment.

Downing, S. K., Denney, R. L., Spray, B. J., Houston, C. M., & Halfaker, D. H. (In Press). Examining the relationship between the Restructured Scales and the Fake Bad Scale of the MMPI-2.  The Clinical Neuropsychologist.

Finn, S. E., & Kamphuis, J. H. (2006). The MMPI-2 RC Scales and restraints to innovation, or “What have they done to my song?” Journal of Personality Assessment 87, 202-210.

Forbey, J. D., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2007). A comparison of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) and Clinical Scales in a substance abuse treatment sample. Psychological Services, 4, 46-58.

Forbey, J. D., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2007). Computerized adaptive personality testing: A review and illustration with the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version (MMPI-2- CA). Psychological Assessment, 19, 14-24.

Forbey, J. D., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (In Press). Empirical correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a non-clinical setting Journal of Personality Assessment.

Graham, J. R. (2006). MMPI-2: Assessing Personality and Psychopathology (4th edition). New York: Oxford University Press.

Handel, R. W., & Archer, R. P. (In Press). An investigation of the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales with mental health inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Henry, G. K., Heilbronner, R. L., Mittenberg, W., Enders, C., & Stanczal, S. R. (In Press). Comparison of the Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale, Henry-Heilbronner Index, and Restructured Clinical Scale 1 in identifying noncredible symptom reporting.  The Clinical Neuropsychologist.

Kamphuis, J. H., Arbisi, P. A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & McNulty, J. L. (In Press). Detecting Comorbid Axis-II Status Among Inpatients Using the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Weathers, F. W., Flood, A. M., Eakin, D. E., & Benson, T. A. (2007). The utility of the PAI and the MMPI-2 for discriminating PTSD, depression, and social phobia in trauma-exposed college students. Assessment, 14, 181-195.

Megargee, Edwin I. (2006). Using the MMPI-2 in criminal justice and correctional settings. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Nichols, D. S. (2006). Comment on Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, & Jordan (2006). Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 172-174.

Nichols, D. S. (2006). The trials of separating bath water from baby: A review and critique of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 121-138.

Nichols, D. S. (2006b). Comment on Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, & Jordan (2006). Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 172-174.

Osberg, T. M., Haseley, E. N., & Kamas, M. M. (2008). The MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Comparative psychometric properties and relative diagnostic efficiency in young adults. Journal of Personality Assessment. 90, 81-92.

Osberg, T. M., Haseley, E. N., & Kamas, M. M. (In Press).  The MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Comparative psychometric properties and relative diagnostic efficiency in young adults.  Journal of Personality Assessment.

Ozonoff, S., Garcia, N., Clark, E., & Lainhart, J. E. (2005). MMPI-2 personality profiles of high-functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Assessment, 12, 86-95.

Rogers, R., & Sewell, K.W. (2006). MMPI-2 at the crossroads: Aging technology or retrofitting. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 175-178.

Rogers, R., Sewell, K. W., Harrison, K. S., & Jordan, M. J. (2006). The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales: A paradigmatic shift in scale development. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 139-147.

Sellbom, M., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2005). Mapping the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales onto normal personality traits: Evidence of construct validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85, 179-187.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Bagby, R. M. (In Press). Personality and Psychopathology: Mapping the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales onto the Five Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality Disorders.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Bagby, R. M. (In Press). Personality and Psychopathology: Mapping the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales onto the Five Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality Disorders.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Graham, J. R. (2006). Correlates of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a college counseling setting. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 89-99.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Stafford, K. P. (2007). A comparison of measures of psychopathic deviance in a forensic setting. Psychological Assessment, 19, 430-436.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Stafford, K. P. (In Press). A comparison of measures of psychopathic deviance in a forensic setting. Psychological Assessment.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Baum, L. J., Erez, E., & Gregory, C. (In Press). Predictive validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a batterers' intervention program. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Baum, L. J., Erez, E., & Gregory, C. (In Press). Predictive validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a batterers' intervention program. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Graham, J. R., Arbisi, P. A., & Bagby, R. M. (2005). Susceptibility of the MMPI-2 Clinical, Restructured Clinical (RC), and Content Scales to overreporting and underreporting. Assessment, 12, 79-85.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Lilienfeld, S. O., Patrick, C. J., & Graham, J. R. (2005). Assessing psychopathic personality traits with the MMPI-2. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85, 334-343.

Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., McNulty, J. L., Arbisi, P. A., & Graham, J. R. (2006). Elevation differences between MMPI-2 Clinical and Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Frequency, origins, and interpretative implications. Assessment, 13, 430-441.

Sellbom, M., Fischler, G. L., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2007). Identifying MMPI-2 predictors of police officer integrity and misconduct. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 985-1004.

Sellbom, M., Graham, J. R., & Schenk, P. (2006). Incremental validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a private practice sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 196-205.

Sellbom. M., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2006). Forensic applications of the MMPI. In R. P. Archer (Ed.), Forensic uses of clinical assessment instruments. (pp. 19-55) NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Simms, L. J. (2006). Bridging the divide: Comments on the Restructured Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2. Journal of Personality Assessment 87, 211-216.

Simms, L. J., Casillas, A., Clark, L .A., Watson, D., & Doebbeling, B. I. (2005). Psychometric evaluation of the Restructured Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2. Psychological Assessment, 17, 345-358.

Stredny, R. V., Archer, R. P., & Mason, J. A. (2006). MMPI-2 and MCMI-III characteristics of parental competency examinees. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 113-115.

Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., McNulty, J. L., Arbisi, P. A., Graham, J. R., & Kaemmer, B. (2003). MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Development, validation, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Sellbom, M., Arbisi, P. A., McNulty, J. L., & Graham, J. R. (2006). Further evidence on the validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Addressing questions raised by Rogers et al. and Nichols.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 148-171.

Viken, R .J., & Rose, R. J. (2007).  Genetic variation and covariation in the original and Restructured Clinical Scales of the MMPI.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 842-847.

Viken, R. J., & Rose, R. J. Genetic variation and covariation in the original and Restructured Clinical Scales of the MMPI. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 4, 842-847.

Wallace, A., & Liljequist, L. (2005). A comparison of the correlational structures and elevation patterns of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) and Clinical Scales. Assessment, 12, 290-294.

Weed, N. C. (2006). Syndromal complexity, paradigm shifts, and the future of validation research: A comment on Nichols and Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, & Jordan. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 217-222.

Wygant, D. B., & Fleming, K. P. (In Press). Clinical utility of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in therapeutic assessment: A case study. Journal of Personality Assessment.

Wygant, D. B., Boutacoff, L. A., Arbisi, P. A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Kelly, P. H., & Rupp, W. M. (2007). Examination of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 14, 197-205.

Wygant, D. B., Sellbom, M., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Stafford, K. P., Freeman, D. B., & Heilbronner, R. I. (2007). The relation between symptom validity testing and MMPI-2 scores as a function of forensic evaluation context. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 22, 488-499.