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Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A

Authors:

Hale Martin and Stephen E. Finn

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A

Is an empirically grounded theory of masculinity-femininity actually possible?

Masculinity and femininity remain among the more confounding constructs in the history of personality psychology and psychological assessment. In this informative book, Hale Martin and Stephen E. Finn bring clarity to this topic by comprehensively reviewing past research and theory and extensively exploring ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ as they are measured in the widely used MMPI instruments.

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A presents a balanced, thoughtful argument in favor of the relevance of individual differences along dimensions of masculinity-femininity in developing broader understanding of the client. Martin and Finn make a strong case for the utility of the MMPI-2 in assessing masculinity-femininity within the context of clinical assessment and provide a means of doing so that avoids past erroneous assumptions about gender and sexual identity and their relationship to masculinity-femininity.

Paul Arbisi, University of Minnesota

Masculinity and femininity remain among the more confounding constructs in the history of personality psychology and psychological assessment. In spite of years of research and thousands of empirical studies, masculinity and femininity are still so fraught with confusion and political controversy that several prominent psychologists have suggested that the terms be abandoned. In this informative book, Hale Martin and Stephen E. Finn bring clarity to this topic by comprehensively reviewing past research and theory and extensively exploring ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ as they are measured in the widely used MMPI instruments.

Martin and Finn consider the factor structure and correlates of masculinity and femininity in the MMPI in multiple samples. Through their analyses, they are able to address such questions as: Is there such a thing as masculinity/femininity? If so, are masculinity and femininity separate constructs, or are they opposite ends of a bipolar dimension? What are the core aspects of masculinity and femininity? Are they the same for men and women? Do the meanings of masculinity and femininity vary across the human life span and in different cultures? To what extent are masculinity and femininity biologically or socially determined? Can masculinity and femininity be adequately measured by the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A?

This insightful work uses solid empirical methods to clarify significant constructs. It will be an essential resource for researchers in the areas of personality, psychological assessment, and gender studies, as well as for clinicians working with clients who have nontraditional gender identities.

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A

Hale Martin is assistant clinical professor in the graduate school of professional psychology at the University of Denver.

Stephen E. Finn is in private practice at the Center for Therapeutic Assessment in Austin, Texas, and is an adjunct clinical assistant professor of psychology at the University of Texas.

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A presents a balanced, thoughtful argument in favor of the relevance of individual differences along dimensions of masculinity-femininity in developing broader understanding of the client. Martin and Finn make a strong case for the utility of the MMPI-2 in assessing masculinity-femininity within the context of clinical assessment and provide a means of doing so that avoids past erroneous assumptions about gender and sexual identity and their relationship to masculinity-femininity.

Paul Arbisi, University of Minnesota

Masculinity and femininity are concepts that are difficult to grasp in any context, but especially on the MMPI instruments. Hale Martin and Stephen E. Finn provide clarity and relevance to an aspect of the MMPI that many have found to be confusing or clinically useless. Both scholarly and accessible, this book reviews what psychological science has to say about masculinity and femininity, and then shows how these concepts are reflected on the most widely used psychological test in the world.

Nathan Weed, Central Michigan University

Unique and innovative work.

Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry

Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A

Contents

Acknowledgments

1. Issues in Masculinity and Femininity
2. History of the Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity
3. The Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity on the MMPI
4. Dimensions of Scale 5 of the MMPI-2
5. Further Exploration of Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2
6. Understanding the Dimensions of Scale 5 of the MMPI-2
7. Dimensions of Scale 5 of the MMPI-A
8. Summary and Conclusions: Masculinity-Femininity and the MMPI

Appendixes
A. The Sixty Items Comprising Scale 5 of the MMPI
B. Preferred Promax Factor Solution of Scale 5 in the MMPI-2 for Males in the Normative Sample
C. Preferred Promax Factor Solution of Scale 5 in the MMPI-2 for Females in the Normative Sample
D. Preferred Promax Factor Solution of Scale 5 in the MMPI-2 for the Combined Data in the Normative Sample
E. Items Not on Scale 5, GM, or GF Selected by Judges as Possibly Related to Masculinity and Femininity
F. Factor Loadings for MMPI-2 Scale 5 Factors Intercorrelation Matrix Computed in the Combined Normative MMPI-2 Sample
G. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with Validity and Clinical Scales—Females (Computed in the Normative Sample)
H. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with Validity and Clinical Scales—Males (Computed in the Normative Sample)
I. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with the Content Scales for Females Computed in the Normative Sample
J. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with the Content Scales for Males Computed in the Normative Sample
K. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with Restructured Clinical Scales for Females Computed in the Normative Sample
L. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with Restructured Clinical Scales for Males Computed in the Normative Sample
M. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with the PSY-5 Scales for Females Computed in the Normative Sample
N. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with the PSY-5 Scales for Males Computed in the Normative Sample
O. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with Other MMPI Measures of Masculinity- Femininity for Females Computed in the Normative Sample
P. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with Other MMPI Measures of Masculinity- Femininity for Males Computed in the Normative Sample
Q. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with MMPI-2-RF Interest Scales for Females Computed in the Normative Sample
R. Intercorrelations of the Scale 5 Factors with the MMPI-2-RF Interest Scales for Males Computed in the Normative Sample
S. Gender Identity Scale for Females (GIF) (Finn, 1986)
T. Gender Identity Scale for Males (GIM) (Finn, 1986)
U. UT92 Sample versus MMPI-2 Normative Sample: Scale 5, GM, and GF Mean Scores
V. UT92 Sample versus California Psychological Inventory Normative Sample: F/M, BMS, and BFM Mean Scores
W. UT92 Sample and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire Normative Sample: M+, F+, and M-F+ Means
X. UT92 Sample and the Male-Female Relations Questionnaire Normative Sample: Social Interaction, Expressivity/Male Preference, and Marital Roles Means
Y-1. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Scale 5 Score and Age in Males
Y-2. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Denial of Stereotypical Masculine Interests and Age in Males
Y-3. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Hypersensitivity/Anxiety and Age in Males
Y-4. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Stereotypical Feminine Interests and Age in Males
Y-5. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Low Cynicism and Age in Males
Y-6. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Aesthetic Interests and Age in Males
Y-7. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Feminine Gender Identity and Age in Males
Y-8. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Restraint and Age in Males
Y-9. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: FM Score and Age in Males
Z-1. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Scale 5 and Age in Females
Z-2. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Denial of Stereotypical Masculine Interests and Age in Females
Z-3. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Hypersensitivity/Anxiety and Age in Females
Z-4. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Stereotypical Feminine Interests and Age in Females
Z-5. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Low Cynicism and Age in Females
Z-6. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Aesthetic Interests and Age in Females
Z-7. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Feminine Gender Identity and Age in Females
Z-8. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Restraint and Age in Females
Z-9. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: FM Scale and Age in Females
AA-1. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Scale 5 Score and Education in Males
AA-2. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Denial of Stereotypical Masculine Interests and Education in Males
AA-3. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Hypersensitivity/Anxiety and Education in Males
AA-4. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Stereotypical Feminine Interests and Education in Males
AA-5. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Low Cynicism and Education in Males
AA-6. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Aesthetic Interests and Education in Males
AA-7. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Feminine Gender Identity and Education in Males
AA-8. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Restraint and Education in Males
AA-9. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: FM Score and Education in Males
BB-1. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Scale 5 and Education in Females
BB-2. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Denial of Stereotypical Masculine Interests and Education in Females
BB-3. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Hypersensitivity/Anxiety and Education in Females
BB-4. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Stereotypical Feminine Interests and Education in Females
BB-5. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Low Cynicism and Education in Females
BB-6. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Aesthetic Interests and Education in Females
BB-7. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Feminine Gender Identity and Education in Females
BB-8. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Restraint and Education in Females
BB-9. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: FM Scale and Education in Females
CC-1. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Scale 5 Score and Ethnicity in Males
CC-2. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Denial of Stereotypical Masculine Interests and Ethnicity in Males
CC-3. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Hypersensitivity/Anxiety and Ethnicity in Males
CC-4. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Stereotypical Feminine Interests and Ethnicity in Males
CC-5. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Low Cynicism and Ethnicity in Males
CC-6. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Aesthetic Interests and Ethnicity in Males
CC-7. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Feminine Gender Identity and Ethnicity in Males
CC-8. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Restraint and Ethnicity in Males
CC-9. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: FM Score and Ethnicity in Males
DD-1. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Scale 5 Score and Ethnicity in Females
DD-2. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Denial of Stereotypical Masculine Interests and Ethnicity in Females
DD-3. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Hypersensitivity/Anxiety and Ethnicity in Females
DD-4. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Stereotypical Feminine Interests and Ethnicity in Females
DD-5. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Low Cynicism and Ethnicity in Females
DD-6. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Aesthetic Interests and Ethnicity in Females
DD-7. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Feminine Gender Identity and Ethnicity in Females
DD-8. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: Restraint and Ethnicity in Females
DD-9. One-Way Analyses of Variance and Scheffe’s Tests of Significance: FM Scale and Ethnicity in Females
EE. Factor Loadings for MMPI-A Scale 5 Factors Intercorrelation Matrix Computed in the Combined Normative MMPI-A Sample


References
Index