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British Broadcasting

Radio and Television in the United Kingdom

Author:

Burton Paulu

British Broadcasting
British Broadcasting

Burton Paulu was manager of the University of Minnesota radio station, KUOM, which broadcasted educational radio programs and also produced radio and television programs for broadcast over commercial stations.

British Broadcasting

CONTENTS
1 BROADCASTING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM . . . 3
2 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION 8
The Early Years of British Broadcasting, 8. The Broadcasting Com-
mittees, 10. The Development of the Monopoly, 13. The Monopoly
Debate, 16. The Financial Basis of the British Broadcasting Corpora-
tion, 22. Relay Exchanges and Foreign Commercial Broadcasts, 26. The
BBC as a Public Corporation, 31: THE CHARTER AND THE LICENCE, 32;
THE BBC AND THE GOVERNMENT, 36.
3 THE STRUCTURE OF THE
INDEPENDENT TELEVISION AUTHORITY 43
The Political Background, 43. The Conservative Party's Proposals, 46.
The Television Act of 1954, 51: THE INDEPENDENT TELEVISION AUTHORI-
TY, 52; PROGRAM CONTRACTORS, 55. The Independent Television Au-
thority Is Organized, 59: PLANS FOR STATIONS, 60; THE SELECTION OF PRO-
GRAM CONTRACTORS, 61; ADVERTISING STANDARDS, 63; RATES AND INCOME,
68; THE ITA AND THE BBC IN COMPETITION, 70.
4 THE FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OF THE
BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION 75
Funds for Domestic Broadcasting, 76. Government Charges Against Li-
cense Revenues, 79. Expenditures for Domestic Broadcasting, 83. Fi-
nancing the External Services, 88. BBC Finances and Government
Control, 90.
ix
British Broadcasting
5 THE STAFF OF THE BRITISH
BROADCASTING CORPORATION 93
The Board of Governors, 94. The Director General, 98. Advisory Coun-
cils and Committees, 101. The BBC Hierarchy and Staff, 105: BBC STAFF
PROCEDURES, 106; THE STAFF TRAINING PROGRAM, 109. BBC Staff Prob-
lems, 111: THE LAMBERT-LEVITA CASE, 113; BBC-UNION RELATIONS, 115. An
Appraisal of BBC Staff Performance, 120.
6 THE TECHNICAL FACILITIES OF
BRITISH BROADCASTING 123
The International Allocation of Radio Frequencies and Television
Channels, 123. BBC Radio Frequency Assignments, 126. British Tele-
vision Channels, 130. The BBC's Physical Plant, 132. Studios and
Equipment, 137.
7 BBC RADIO PROGRAMS: NEWS, TALKS,
EDUCATION, AND RELIGION 143
The Three Radio Services, 146: THE HOME SERVICE, 149; THE LIGHT
PROGRAMME, 150; THE THIRD PROGRAMME, 152; THE BBC PROGRAM SUPPLY
SYSTEM, 154. News, 155: AN APPRAISAL, 160. Talks, 163: GENERAL ELEC-
TION BROADCASTS, 163; PARTY POLITICAL BROADCASTS, 166; OPINION AND
DISCUSSION PROGRAMS, 168; AN APPRAISAL OF BBC POLITICAL AND CONTRO-
VERSIAL BROADCASTS, 171; OTHER TALKS PROGRAMS, 174. BBC Broadcasts
for Schools, 179: THE SCHOOL BROADCASTING COUNCIL, 180; THE SCHOOL
BROADCASTING DEPARTMENT, 182; THE PROGRAMS, 184; THE RESULTS, 188.
Adult Education, 191. Religious Broadcasting, 194: RELIGIOUS BROAD-
CASTING POLICY, 195; RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS, 198; REACTION AND APPRAISAL,
200.
8 BBC RADIO PROGRAMS:
ENTERTAINMENT AND MUSIC 203
Drama, 203. Features, 208. Children's Programs, 212. Outside Broad-
casts, 215. Variety and Light Entertainment, 219. Music, 222. An Ap-
praisal of BBC Radio Broadcasting, 228.
9 THE DEVELOPMENT OF TELEVISION
IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 235
The Selsdon Report, 237. British Television from 1936 to 1939, 240:
x
Contents
EARLY PROGRAMS, 243. After the War, 248: A NATIONAL SERVICE, 250;
ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL PROBLEMS, 253.
10 BBC TELEVISION PROGRAMS: OUTSIDE BROAD-
CASTS, DRAMA, FILMS, AND ENTERTAINMENT . . 256
The Pattern of BBC Television, 257. Outside Broadcasts, 261. Drama,
269. Films, 276. Light Entertainment, 282.
11 BBC TELEVISION PROGRAMS:
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION 291
News, 291. Television Talks, 295. Documentary Programs, 302. Chil-
dren's Television, 305. Television Music, 312. International Exchange
Programs, 316. An Appraisal of BBC Television Programing, 322.
12 THE PROGRAM OPERATIONS OF THE
INDEPENDENT TELEVISION AUTHORITY 325
Technical Facilities, 326. Programs, 331.
13 THE AUDIENCE FOR BRITISH BROADCASTING . . 342
The BBC Department of Audience Research, 344: AUDIENCE RESEARCH
METHODS, 345; LISTENER AND VIEWER PANELS, 347; APPLICATION OF THE
FINDINGS, 349. Commercial Research Organizations, 352. The Findings,
353: RADIO AND TELEVISION RECEIVER DISTRIBUTION, 354; THE TOTAL CON-
SUMPTION OF RADIO AND TELEVISION, 356; BRITISH RADIO PROGRAM PREFER-
ENCES, 361; THE DIVISION OF AUDIENCE AMONG LIGHT PROGRAMME, HOME
SERVICE, AND THIRD PROGRAMME, 368; TELEVISION PROGRAM PREFERENCES,
370; GENERAL REACTIONS, 374. Conclusions, 380.
14 EXTERNAL BROADCASTING 382
The Empire Service, 383. International Broadcasting during World
War II, 386: THE BBC ASSUMES LEADERSHIP, 388; WARTIME PROGRAMS,
390; BRITISH-AMERICAN COOPERATION, 394; WARTIME AUDIENCES, 395. The
Permanent External Services, 397: THE OBJECTIVES AND CONTROL OF
POSTWAR EXTERNAL BROADCASTING, 398; PEACETIME PROGRAMS, 401; SERV-
ICES TO THE UNITED STATES, 405; PEACETIME AUDIENCES, 407.
XI
APPENDIXES
i Radio and Television Licenses in the United Kingdom,
1927-1956 413
ii License Revenue Allocation, 1927-1955 414
in The Organization of the BBC 416
iv BBC Radio Transmitters in 1956 420
v The Principal Television Systems of the World 422
vi BBC Television Transmitters on March 31, 1956 423
vn ITA Television Transmitters in 1956 423
vin Geographical Distribution of Radio and Television Licenses
in the United Kingdom, 1950-1956 424
NOTES 426
BIBLIOGRAPHY 448
INDEX 453