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Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypthalamus

Implications for Physiology, Medicine, Psychology, and Neuropsychiatry

Author:

Ernst Gellhorn

Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypthalamus
Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypthalamus

Ernst Gellhorn was a professor of neurophysiology at the University of Minnesota and a lifelong student of the autonomic nervous system. He is the author of the books Autonomic Regulations and Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry, as well as numerous articles.

Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypthalamus

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION 3
Part I. Experimental Investigations
Chapter 1. PHYSIOLOGICAL LAWS CONCERNING AUTO-
NOMIC IMBALANCE 9
(A) Summation Processes in the Autonomic Nervous System, 9: (1) Sympa-
thetic Spatial Summation, 9; (2) Sympathetic Temporal Summation, 10; (3)
Parasympathetic Summation, 12. (B) Studies on the Reactivity of the Auto-
nomic Nervous System in Reflexly Induced States of Imbalance, 14: (1) The
Action of Sympathetic Stimuli during Sympathetic Reflex Tuning, 15; (2)
The Action of Parasympathetic Stimuli during Parasympathetic Reflex Tun-
ing, 18; (3) Autonomic Tuning and Reciprocal Innervation, 21: (a) PARASYM-
PATHETIC TUNING AND SYMPATHETIC REACTIVITY, 22, (b) SYMPATHETIC TUNING
AND PARASYMPATHETIC REACTIVITY, 23, (c) TUNING AND SUCCESSIVE INDUCTION,
24; (4) Reversal of Autonomic Effects as the Result of Tuning, 30; (5) Sino-
Aortic Reflexes, Tuning, and Autonomic Summation Processes, 33: (a) AUTO-
NOMIC TUNING AND SINO-AORTIC REFLEXES, 33, (b) REVERSAL AND INHIBITION
OF CENTRALLY INDUCED SYMPATHETIC EXCITATION THROUGH SINO-AORTIC RE-
FLEXES, 36, (c) MODIFICATION OF AUTONOMIC SUMMATION PROCESSES THROUGH
SINO-AORTIC REFLEXES, 40, (d) HEMORRHAGE AND AUTONOMIC TUNING, 43, (e) DEX-
TRAN AND AUTONOMIC TUNING, 44, (f) AUTONOMIC TUNING AND BLOOD PRESSURE
VARIATIONS INDUCED BY NORADRENALINE, 46, (g) MUTUAL INFLUENCES BETWEEN
THE PARASYMPATHETIC AND SYMPATHETIC SYSTEMS, 48; (6) The Action of
Chemoreceptors on the Autonomic Nervous System, 49: (a) ANOXIA, HYPER-
CAPNIA, AND HYPOGLYCEMIA AND THE BALANCE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS
SYSTEM, 49, (b)ASPHYXiA AND AUTONOMIC BALANCE, 51. (C) Interpretation, 61:
(1) The Laws of Summation, Limiting Mechanisms, and the Dominance of the
Sympathetic System, 61; (2) The Tuning of the Autonomic Nervous System
through Baroreceptor Reflexes from the Sino-Aortic Area, 64; (3) Further
Characteristics of the Tuning Process, 69; (4) The Physiological Basis of the
Reversal Phenomenon, 70; (5) Successive Autonomic Induction, 72; (6) Sino-
Aortic Denervation and the Autonomic Nervous System, 73; (7) Tuning of the
Autonomic Nervous System through a Change in the Internal Environment, 74.
Chapter 2. HYPOTHALAMIC EXCITABILITY, PHASIC
AUTONOMIC REFLEXES, AND TONIC AUTONOMIC
FUNCTIONS 77
(A) A Basic Clinical Observation, 78. (B) The Dependence of the Action of
Mecholyl and Other Hypotensive Drugs on the Excitability of the Posterior
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Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus, 79: (1) The Intrahypothalamic Action of Metrazol and
Strychnine, 81; (2) The Intrahypothalamic Action of Pentothal and Procaine,
85; (3) The Effect of Physiological Changes in the Excitability of the Hypo-
thalamus, 87; (4) The Effect of Lesions of the Posterior Hypothalamus, 91.
(C) The Influence of the Excitability of the Anterior Hypothalamus on the
Action of Noradrenaline, 94: (1) The Action of Pentothal, 96; (2) The Effect
of Lesions in the Anterior Hypothalamus, 97. (D) Reciprocal Innervation and
Hypothalamic Autonomic Imbalance, 99. (E) The Tonic Action of the Hypo-
thalamus on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate, 102. (F) Interpretation, 109:
(1) Summation Processes in Conditions of Central Autonomic Imbalance, 109;
(2) Tests of Hypothalamic Excitability and Indicators of Autonomic Balance,
113; (3) Reciprocal Innervation in States of Centrally Induced Autonomic
Imbalance, 114; (4) The Tonic Functions of the Hypothalamus, 115.
Chapter 3. THE RELATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC EXCI-
TATION TO NEUROGENIC AND HORMONAL (ADRE-
NOMEDULLARY) DISCHARGES. A Contribution to the
Study of Homeostasis 119
(A) The Relation between Sympathetic and Sympathetico-Adrenal Discharges,
120. (B) The Influence of Central Sympathetic and Sympathetico-Adrenal
Discharges on the Action of Hypotensive Drugs, 126. (C) The Homeostatic
Action of Adrenomedullary Secretion and Its Significance for the Action of
Mecholyl, 127. (D) Noradrenaline, Adrenaline, and the Action of Hypotensive
Drugs, 133. (E) Factors Altering the Relative Dominance of Neurogenic Sym-
pathetic and Hormonal (Adrenomedullary) Discharges, 134. (F) Interpreta-
tion, 137.
Chapter 4. THE TONE OF THE SKELETAL MUSCLES IN
ITS RELATION TO THE EXCITABILITY OF THE HY-
POTHALAMUS AND THE EMOTIONS 140
(A) Proprioception and the Excitability of the Hypothalamus, 141. (B) Pro-
prioception and the Emotions, 144. (C) Evaluation, 145.
Chapter 5. ON THE RELATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
TO THE VISCERA 147
(A) Autonomic Effects on the Bladder and Gut, 148. (B) The Hypothalamus
and Intestinal Activity, 150. (C) Evaluation, 154.
Chapter 6. RESPIRATORY REFLEXES AND THE HY-
POTHALAMUS 158
(A) The Hypothalamus and the Level of Respiratory Activity, 159. (B) Re-
spiratory Reflexes and the Posterior Hypothalamus, 160. (C) Evaluation,
162.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 7. THE HYPOTHALAMIC-CORTICAL DISCHARGE
AND ITS RELATION TO THE STATE OF THE HYPO-
THALAMIC BALANCE 165
(A) Proof of the Existence of the Hypothalamic-Cortical Discharge, 166. (B)
The Physiological Significance of the Hypothalamic-Cortical Discharge, 169.
(C) The Dependence of the Hypothalamic-Cortical Discharge on the Excitabil-
ity of the Hypothalamus, 177. (D) The Dependence of the Hypothalamic-
Cortical Discharge on the Autonomic Balance of the Hypothalamus, 180. (E)
The Relation of Baroreceptor Reflexes to the Hypothalamic-Cortical System,
181: (1) Hypotensive Drugs and Their Relation to the Hypothalamic-Cortical
System, 182; (2) Hypertensive Drugs and Their Relation to the Hypothalamic-
Cortical System, 189. (F) The Cortico-Hypothalamic Discharge in Hypo-
thalamic Imbalance, 192. (G) Evaluation, 195.
Chapter 8. EXPERIMENTS ON THE ACTION OF DRUGS
ON THE HYPOTHALAMIC-CORTICAL SYSTEM 201
(A) Observations on the Reactivity of the Hypothalamus in the Unanesthe-
tized Animal, 201. (B) The Action of Barbiturates and Chlorpromazine on
Cortical and Hypothalamic Potentials, 202. (C) Drug Action in Hypothalamic
Imbalance, 206. (D) The Caudate Nucleus, the Recruiting Response, and the
Action of Drugs, 207. (E) Evaluation, 211.
Part II. Review of Results and Clinical Application
Chapter 9. THE EXPERIMENTAL FOUNDATION AND
THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF THE CONCEPT OF
PARASYMPATHETIC AND SYMPATHETIC TUNING OF
THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM 217
(A) Review of Physiological Experiments, 217. (B) Application, 221.
Chapter 10. THE EXPERIMENTAL FOUNDATION AND
THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF THE MEASUREMENT
OF HYPOTHALAMIC IMBALANCE IN THE INTACT OR-
GANISM 225
(A) Review of Experimental Results, 225. (B) Physiological and Clinical In-
vestigations on the Mecholyl and Noradrenaline Tests in Man, 229.
Chapter 11. THE HYPOTHALAMIC-CORTICAL SYSTEM IN
HYPOTHALAMIC IMBALANCE. Review and Clinical Appli-
cation 239
Chapter 12. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF FEAR AND ANGER... 243
(A) Funkenstein's Work, 243. (B) Physiological Considerations, 244. (C) Fur-
ther Studies on Human Emotions, 249. (D) Concluding Remarks, 250.
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Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypothalamus
Chapter 13. THE ROLE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN
HOMEOSTASIS 252
(A) Noradrenaline and Adrenaline in Homeostasis, 252. (B) Homeostasis and
Hypothalamic Imbalance, 254.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 261
EPILOGUE 277
BIBLIOGRAPHY 285
INDEX 298