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Answers to FAQs about the following topics: Abbreviated Form, Non-K Corrected T-Scores, Norms, Psy-5 Scales, RC Scales, User/Purchasing Qualifications

Abbreviated MMPI-2

What scales can be scored if only the first 370 items are administered?

Scorable are validity indicators L, F, and K, the clinical scales, and  the Harris-Lingoes and Si subscales. Not scorable are validity indicators VRIN, TRIN, FB, Fp, FBS, and S, the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales, the Personality-Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales, the Content Scales, and the Supplementary Scales.

Non-K-Corrected T Scores

Which MMPI-2 materials contain non-K-corrected T Scores?

An optional profile of the Validity and Clinical Scales incorporating non-K-corrected T scores is provided in the computerized Extended Score Report, and a hand-scoring Validity and Clinical Scales Profile form for K- and non-K-corrected scores is available. Also, Appendix A of the 2001 MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation provides raw score conversion tables for both K- and non-K-corrected T scores.

Why were non-K-corrected T scores re-introduced in the Extended Score Report?

Research indicates that the K correction does not enhance validity and that in some cases validity is actually attenuated by applying the K correction to the Clinical Scales. Non-K-corrected T scores allow interpreters to examine the relative contributions of the Clinical Scale raw score and the K correction to K-corrected Clinical Scale T scores. This information may be particularly helpful when the K score deviates substantially from the average T-score range (<40 or >65). Because all other MMPI-2 scores that aid in the interpretation of the Clinical Scales (the Harris-Lingoes Subscales, Restructured Clinical Scales, Content and Content Component Scales, PSY-5 Scales, and Supplementary Scales) are not K-corrected, they can be compared most directly with non-K-corrected T scores.

What does research indicate about the K correction?

The K correction does not improve individual scale validity in any setting.  It significantly attenuates individual scale validity in non-clinical settings; the detrimental effects are most pronounced in settings  in which defensive responding is frequent.

K-corrected code types are no more valid, and are often less valid, as predictors of correlates in clinical settings.  Non-K-corrected correlates (i.e., correlations with extra-test criteria) are similar in composition to K-corrected correlates, but are often stronger in magnitude. Therefore, non-K-corrected code types can be interpreted with greater confidence based on the existing literature.


Are different norms used for different settings?

No. However, there are different norms for the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A tests.

The MMPI-2 normative sample consists of 2,600 individuals (1,138 men; 1,462 women), age 18 or older, who were selected as representative of the US population.

Are there norms for different cultures?

American minorities are included in the normative samples. No separate cultural norms are available.

Are non-gendered norms available for all MMPI-2 scales?

Yes.  A complete set of non-gendered T scores for all MMPI-2 scales is provided in a test monograph by Yossef S. Ben-Porath and Johnathan D. Forbey titled Non-Gendered Norms for the MMPI-2, published by the University of Minnesota Press (2003). The monograph documents the rationale for, as well as the development and use of, non-gendered norms for the MMPI-2. This test monograph is available from Pearson Assessments.

The Psy-5 (Personality Psychopathology Five) Scales

What are the PSY-5 scales, and where can I find information about them?

Harkness and McNulty developed a model for assessing psychopathology based on the "Big Five" model of personality. They selected items from the MMPI-2 item pool that matched their model and developed five scales: Aggressiveness (AGGR), Psychoticism (PSYC), Disconstraint (DISC), Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism (NEGE), and Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality (INTR). The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales were introduced in 2001 and are available on the Extended Score Report, the Minnesota Reports, and in the hand-scoring Supplementary Scales materials. Additional information about the PSY-5 Scales can be found in the revised MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation (2001; published by the University of Minnesota Press and available from Pearson Assessments) and  MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales: Gaining an Overview for Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning (2002; published by the University of Minnesota Press and available from Pearson Assessments.

What is required to purchase, administer and score the MMPI® test materials?

A Level "C" qualification is required to purchase MMPI® materials from Pearson Assessments, please see the user qualifications.