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Pending Duplicate Bibliography Entries

Clinical utility of the memory complaints inventory to detect invalid test performance
Objective: This investigation was designed to examine the classification statistics of Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI) scores relative to the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) and the Non-Verbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT), as well as various validity scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form(MMPI-2-RF). Method: The sample consisted of 339 active duty service members with a history of concussion who completed performance validity tests (PVTs), symptom validity tests (SVTs), and the MCI. Results: Those who failed the MSVT and NV-MSVT had significantly higher scores across all MCI scales. In addition, those who scored above specified cut scores on the evaluated PAI and MMPI-2-RF validity scales also had significantly higher MCI scale scores. Receiver operator characteristics analysis demonstrated acceptable area under the curve (AUC) across the evaluated SVTs for the mean of all MCI subtests with values ranging from (.77 to .86), with comparable findings for PVTs (MSVT AUC = .75; NV-MSVT AUC = .72). Conclusions: In general the MCI scales demonstrated better classification statistics relative to SVTs vs. PVTs, which is consistent with the nature of the MCI as a self-report instrument.
Further Validation of the Conner's Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Rating Scale Infrequency Index (CII) for Detection of Non-Credible Report of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
Objective. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be easily presented in a non-credible manner, through non-credible report of ADHD symptoms and/or by non-credible performance on neuropsychological tests. While most studies have focused on detection of non-credible performance using performance validity tests, there are few studies examining the ability to detect non-credible report of ADHD symptoms. We provide further validation data for a recently developed measure of non-credible ADHD symptom report, the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) Infrequency Index (CII). Method. Using archival data from 86 adults referred for concerns about ADHD, we examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting extreme scores on the CAARS and invalid reporting on validity indices of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Format (MMPI-2-RF). We also examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting non-credible performance on standalone and embedded performance validity tests. Results. The CII was 52\% sensitive to extreme scores on CAARS DSM symptom subscales (with 97\% specificity) and 20\%–36\% sensitive to invalid responding on MMPI-2-RF validity scales (with near 90\% specificity), providing further evidence for the interpretation of the CII as an indicator of non-credible ADHD symptom report. However, the CII detected only 18\% of individuals who failed a standalone performance validity test (Word Memory Test), with 87.8\% specificity, and was not accurate in detecting non-credible performance using embedded digit span cutoffs. Conclusions. Future studies should continue to examine how best to assess for non-credible symptom report in ADHD referrals.
Algorithm for Symptom Attribution and Classification Following Possible Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
OBJECTIVE: To present a heuristic model of a symptom attribution and classification algorithm (SACA) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). SETTING: VA Polytrauma sites. PARTICIPANTS: 422 Veterans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MAIN MEASURES: SACA, Comprehensive TBI Evaluation (CTBIE), Structured TBI Diagnostic Interview, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2-RF), Letter Memory Test, Validity-10. RESULTS: SACA and CTBIE diagnoses differ significantly (P .01). The CTBIE, compared with SACA, attributes 16\% to 500\% more symptoms to mTBI, behavioral health (BH), mTBI + BH and symptom resolution. Altering SACA criteria indicate that (1) CTBIE determination of cognitive impairment yields 27\% to 110\% more mTBI, mTBI + BH and symptom resolution diagnoses, (2) ignoring timing of symptom onset yields 32\% to 76\% more mTBI, mTBI + BH and Other Condition diagnoses, (3) Proportion of sample having questionably valid profiles using structured TBI diagnostic interview and MMPI-2-RF and Letter Memory Test is 26\% whereas with CTBIE item number 23 and Validity-10 is 6\% to 26\%, (4) MMPI-2-RF F-scale is the only measure identifying Veterans with posttraumatic amnesia for more than 24 hours as having questionably valid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom attribution-based diagnoses differ when using status quo versus the SACA. The MMPI-2-RF F-scale, compared with the Validity-10 and Letter Memory Test, may be more precise in identifying questionably valid profiles for mTBI + BH. The SACA provides a framework to inform clinical practice, resource allocation, and future research.

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