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Pending Duplicate Bibliography Entries

Clinical utility of the memory complaints inventory to detect invalid test performance
Objective: This investigation was designed to examine the classification statistics of Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI) scores relative to the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) and the Non-Verbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT), as well as various validity scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form(MMPI-2-RF). Method: The sample consisted of 339 active duty service members with a history of concussion who completed performance validity tests (PVTs), symptom validity tests (SVTs), and the MCI. Results: Those who failed the MSVT and NV-MSVT had significantly higher scores across all MCI scales. In addition, those who scored above specified cut scores on the evaluated PAI and MMPI-2-RF validity scales also had significantly higher MCI scale scores. Receiver operator characteristics analysis demonstrated acceptable area under the curve (AUC) across the evaluated SVTs for the mean of all MCI subtests with values ranging from (.77 to .86), with comparable findings for PVTs (MSVT AUC = .75; NV-MSVT AUC = .72). Conclusions: In general the MCI scales demonstrated better classification statistics relative to SVTs vs. PVTs, which is consistent with the nature of the MCI as a self-report instrument.
Further Validation of the Conner's Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Rating Scale Infrequency Index (CII) for Detection of Non-Credible Report of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
Objective. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be easily presented in a non-credible manner, through non-credible report of ADHD symptoms and/or by non-credible performance on neuropsychological tests. While most studies have focused on detection of non-credible performance using performance validity tests, there are few studies examining the ability to detect non-credible report of ADHD symptoms. We provide further validation data for a recently developed measure of non-credible ADHD symptom report, the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) Infrequency Index (CII). Method. Using archival data from 86 adults referred for concerns about ADHD, we examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting extreme scores on the CAARS and invalid reporting on validity indices of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Format (MMPI-2-RF). We also examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting non-credible performance on standalone and embedded performance validity tests. Results. The CII was 52\% sensitive to extreme scores on CAARS DSM symptom subscales (with 97\% specificity) and 20\%–36\% sensitive to invalid responding on MMPI-2-RF validity scales (with near 90\% specificity), providing further evidence for the interpretation of the CII as an indicator of non-credible ADHD symptom report. However, the CII detected only 18\% of individuals who failed a standalone performance validity test (Word Memory Test), with 87.8\% specificity, and was not accurate in detecting non-credible performance using embedded digit span cutoffs. Conclusions. Future studies should continue to examine how best to assess for non-credible symptom report in ADHD referrals.
Algorithm for Symptom Attribution and Classification Following Possible Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
OBJECTIVE: To present a heuristic model of a symptom attribution and classification algorithm (SACA) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). SETTING: VA Polytrauma sites. PARTICIPANTS: 422 Veterans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MAIN MEASURES: SACA, Comprehensive TBI Evaluation (CTBIE), Structured TBI Diagnostic Interview, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2-RF), Letter Memory Test, Validity-10. RESULTS: SACA and CTBIE diagnoses differ significantly (P .01). The CTBIE, compared with SACA, attributes 16\% to 500\% more symptoms to mTBI, behavioral health (BH), mTBI + BH and symptom resolution. Altering SACA criteria indicate that (1) CTBIE determination of cognitive impairment yields 27\% to 110\% more mTBI, mTBI + BH and symptom resolution diagnoses, (2) ignoring timing of symptom onset yields 32\% to 76\% more mTBI, mTBI + BH and Other Condition diagnoses, (3) Proportion of sample having questionably valid profiles using structured TBI diagnostic interview and MMPI-2-RF and Letter Memory Test is 26\% whereas with CTBIE item number 23 and Validity-10 is 6\% to 26\%, (4) MMPI-2-RF F-scale is the only measure identifying Veterans with posttraumatic amnesia for more than 24 hours as having questionably valid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom attribution-based diagnoses differ when using status quo versus the SACA. The MMPI-2-RF F-scale, compared with the Validity-10 and Letter Memory Test, may be more precise in identifying questionably valid profiles for mTBI + BH. The SACA provides a framework to inform clinical practice, resource allocation, and future research.
Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics.
Psychological predictors of body image concerns 3 months after bariatric surgery
BACKGROUND: Although studies have associated postoperative weight loss with improvement in body image dissatisfaction, some individuals continue to report body image concerns after bariatric surgery. These concerns are linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem in bariatric populations. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to explore preoperative factors that may predict early body image concerns 3 months after bariatric surgery. SETTING: Academic medical center. METHOD: Data were analyzed from 229 patients evaluated for bariatric surgery who completed a 3-month postoperative psychology appointment and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Scales measuring depression, persecution, self-doubt, and inadequacy were examined. Medical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, psychotropic medication usage, history of psychological treatment, and current or lifetime depression diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients who preoperatively scored higher on demoralization (F [1, 227] = 35.40, P .001), low positive emotions (F [1, 227] = 4.18, P .05), ideas of persecution (F [1, 227] = 15.24, P .001), self-doubt (F [1, 227] = 27.47, P .001), and inefficacy (F [1, 227] = 21.34, P .001) were significantly more likely to report body image concerns 3 months after bariatric surgery. Similarly, body image concerns were more common in patients with a preoperative depression diagnosis (χ(2) = 8.76, P.01), current psychotropic medication usage (χ(2) = 7.13, P.01), and history of outpatient therapy (χ(2) = 8.34, P.01) and psychotropic medication (χ(2) = 9.66, P .001). CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery candidates with psychopathology and other psychological risk factors are more likely to report body image concerns early after bariatric surgery. Future research is warranted to determine whether this association remains further out from surgery.
Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's disease patients: Dopaminergic medication or personality traits fault?
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are clinically relevant in Parkinson disease (PD) patients, with an established association with PD medication. Aim of our study was to study whether the increased frequency of pathological gambling (PG), reported in subgroups of PD patients, is related to specific personality tracts additional to dopaminergic medications. Thirty-seven PD patients with a personal history of PG where enrolled. Twenty one PD patients, matched for disease and dopaminergic therapy, never experiencing PG, were enrolled as controls. All subjects were tested with the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory Personality scales (MMPI-2). Our data showed that PD group with PG exhibited significantly higher mean values of the three validity scales in comparison to the non-PG-PD group, demonstrating an higher tendency to lie. Content scales showed a significant increase of cynicism and bizarre ideation scales score in the PG-PD group, not exhibiting pathological values at the validity scales, (p: 0.02) in comparison to non-PG PD patients. According to our results, PG seems to be associated with precise personality tracts. Personality profiles of cluster A personality disturbances - Axys 2 according with DSM-5 TR (paranoid type) at MMPI-2 might be a warning index helpful in selecting dopaminergic treatment, to avoid subsequent ICDs appearance.

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