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The Integument of Arthropods

The Chemical Components and Their Properties, the Anatomy and Development, and the Permeability

Author:

A. Glenn Richards

The Integument of Arthropods
The Integument of Arthropods

A. Glenn Richards was a professor of entomology and zoology at the University of Minnesota.

The Integument of Arthropods

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Introduction

SECTION I. THE CHEMICAL COMPONENTS, THEIR COMBINATIONS, THEIR PROPERTIES

2 Glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, Chitobiose, and Chitin
3 Chitin Derivatives and Metabolic Sources
4 The Detection and Estimation of Chitin
5 The Distribution of Chitin in the Animal and Plant Kingdoms
6 The Decomposition of Chitin and Cuticle in Nature
7 Proteins
8 Polyphenols and Enzymes
9 Mixed Polymers
10 Pigments
11 Lipids
12 Inorganic Constituents and Calcification
13 The Percentages of Cuticular Components
14 Unknown Chemical Components
15 The Physical Properties of Cuticle and Cuticular Components

SECTION II. THE MICROANATOMY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGUMENT

16 The General Structure
17 Historical and Taxonomic Resume
18 The Epicuticle, or Nonchitinous Cuticle

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19 The Procuticle, or Chitinous Cuticle
20 Differentiation of the Procuticle
21 Physical Colors
22 The Epidermis
23 The Oenocytes, Blood Cells, and Basement Membrane
24 Molting
25 Muscle Attachments, Tendons, and Apophyses
26 Wings, Gills, Epidermal Glands, Etc
27 The Tracheal System
28 Sculpturing, Sensillae, and Miscellaneous Structures

SECTION III. THE PERMEABILITY OF THE CUTICLE

29 General Remarks on the Permeability of the Cuticle
30 The Penetration of Water and Gases
31 The Penetration of Electrolytes, Nonelectrolytes, and Insecticides

Bibliographical Index of Authors
Subject Index

LIST OF FIGURES
1. Diagrammatic three-dimensional drawing of a typical integument
2. Structural formulae for d-glucose, d-mannose, glucosamine, and N-acetylglucosamine
3. The chitobiose unit
4. Comparative configurations for chitin, cellulose, and glycogen chains
5. The chitin unit cell or space lattice
6. X-ray diffraction patterns of chitin: crystalline and powder
7. The concept of micelles
8. Electron micrographs of chitin microfibers, presumably micelles
9. Folded and elongated configurations of structural proteins
10. Comparative X-ray diffraction patterns of chitin and arthropodin
11. The configuration of silk fibroin chains
12. Structural formulae for tyrosine and its derivatives
13. Structural formulae for some artificial substrates used in studies on sclerotization
14. Pryor's suggested schemes for the sclerotization process
15. Structural formulae for some representative cuticular pigments
16. Structural formulae for alcohols and acids from insect waxes
17. An example of mosaic calcification
18. Calcareous crystals and sphaerites from phasmid egg shells
19. Growth curves for the larval cuticle of a blowfly
20. Light and electron microscope pictures of cuticular laminae

xiv THE INTEGUMENT OF ARTHROPODS

21. Ultraviolet absorption curves for cuticle, chitin, and silk fibroin
22. Infrared absorption curves for cuticle, chitin, and chitosan of a cockroach
23. Infrared absorption curves for cuticle, chitin, and chloroform- extracted cuticle of a blowfly larva
24. Photomicrographs showing the birefringence of purified chitin
25. Birefringence curves indicating the refractive index of chitin
26. Contact angles of various compounds on cuticle
27. Wetting properties of four detergents on fifteen different insect species
28. Longitudinal section of the nymphal integument of a bug, Rhodnius prolixus
29. Section of the pupal integument of a moth, Ephestia Kilhniella
30. Photomicrographs of some representative integuments: caterpillar, dragonfly nymph, cockroach, and tick
31. Photomicrographs of some representative integuments: Linguatulida and Onychophora
32. Sections of some representative integuments: Diplopoda
33. Sections of some representative integuments: Chilopoda
34. Section of the pronotum of a cockroach reconstructed from electron micrographs
35. Sequence of changes in the formation of a blowfly puparium
36. Abnormal "pupation spot" in the larval integument of a moth
37. Section of the elytron (fore wing) of a beetle
38. Diagrams of interference effects in the production of physical colors
39. Changes in the dermal glands of the bug Rhodnius during molting
40. Changes in the dermal glands of the moth Ephestia at the pupal molt
41. Further changes in the dermal glands of the moth Ephestia at the pupal molt

LIST OF FIGURES

42. Section of a multicellular tegumental gland of the crayfish Astacus
43. Sections of the spiracular apparatus and peristigmatic gland of a fly larva
44. Photomicrographs of a cross section through the proven- triculus of a neuropterous larva
45. Sequence of changes in the formation of the pupal integument in the moth Ephestia
46. Sequence of changes during the secretion cycle in the wax gland of a honeybee
47. Photomicrographs of representative muscle attachments and an apodeme
48. Series of diagrams of various types of muscle attachment
49. Section of the developing fore wing of the beetle Calandra
50. Photomicrographs of sections of the fore and hind wings of a cockroach
51. Surface view of the cell types in the gill epidermis of Daphnia
52. Diagrams of two lens types showing swollen and intercalated laminae
53. The general appearance of tracheae and spiracles
54. Semidiagrammatic reconstruction of the tracheal wall of a cockroach, showing micelle orientations
55. Representative electron micrographs of tracheal walls
56. Photomicrographs and electron micrographs of tracheoles
57. Diagrams of various types of cuticular protuberances
58. Representative butterfly and moth scales
59. Diagrammatic reconstruction of an iridescent butterfly scale based on electron micrographs
60. Representative types of unusual setae
61. Effect of age upon rate of entry of arsenite into fly larvae
62. Rates of transpiration from various insect species as a function of temperature

xvi THE INTEGUMENT OF ARTHROPODS

63. Rates of evaporation of water through membranes overlaid with waxes from various insect species
64. Light and electron microscope pictures illustrating penetration phenomena in various species of insects
65. Mortality curves for larvae of a mosquito at different temperatures and different concentrations of DDT suspensions