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The Development and Growth of the External Dimensions of the Human Body in the Fetal Period

Authors:

Richard E. Scammon and Leroy A. Calkins

The Development and Growth of the External Dimensions of the Human Body in the Fetal Period

The work of Doctor Scammon and Doctor Calkins establishes a new principle – that, in general, the linear growth of the various parts of the body is in uniform ratio during the fetal period – and it shows that this principle is in complete harmony with the previously known law of developmental direction. It is a quantitative study of seventy-one external dimensions of human specimens in the fetal stages. The materials and methods are outlined and the results presented graphically by field graphs and curves of general tendency of each dimension studied. The extensive data of this series of investigations and the published literature on fetal growth are summarized and analyzed. This is an indispensable reference book.

Anatomical Record

Development and Growth of the External Dimensions of the Human Body in the Fetal Period was first published in 1929. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.

This fundamental study of the growth of the human body in prenatal life and of its proportions and dimensions at birth is based on 35,000 observations by two of the world’s leading anatomists. The authors have given especial emphasis to obstetric factors. The monograph is copiously illustrated and includes an extensive bibliography and a summary of previous studies on this subject. It will be of interest to anthropologists, pediatrists, obstetricians, anatomists, biologists, and students of child welfare.

The Development and Growth of the External Dimensions of the Human Body in the Fetal Period

Richard E. Scammon was a professor of anatomy at the University of Minnesota. He is co-author of The Measurement of Man (Minnesota, 1930).

Leroy A. Calkins was a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Kansas.

The Development and Growth of the External Dimensions of the Human Body in the Fetal Period

The work of Doctor Scammon and Doctor Calkins establishes a new principle – that, in general, the linear growth of the various parts of the body is in uniform ratio during the fetal period – and it shows that this principle is in complete harmony with the previously known law of developmental direction. It is a quantitative study of seventy-one external dimensions of human specimens in the fetal stages. The materials and methods are outlined and the results presented graphically by field graphs and curves of general tendency of each dimension studied. The extensive data of this series of investigations and the published literature on fetal growth are summarized and analyzed. This is an indispensable reference book.

Anatomical Record

The whole monograph is done with meticulous care of detail, and sound biometric reasoning applied to the general analysis . . . It will stand for some time as the definitive work in its field.

Quarterly Review of Biology

The Development and Growth of the External Dimensions of the Human Body in the Fetal Period

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I. THE GENERAL PLAN OF THE INVESTIGATION
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. MATERIAL AND METHODS 2
1. Amount, source, and racial character of material 2
2. Methods of collecting data 8
3. Selection of a standard dimension for the comparison of measure-
ments 9
4. Determination and elimination of artifacts in data 15
a. Changes in the body-form of specimens before preservation... 16
b. Artifacts produced by simple preservation in formalin 16
c. Artifacts produced by injection and subsequent preservation in
formalin 18
d. Changes in the cephalic region due to birth moulding 25
e. Modifications of the form of the thorax that accompany the
partial or complete establishment of respiration 28
III. ANALYSIS OF DATA BY GRAPHIC AND NUMERICAL METHODS 29
1. Establishment of preliminary tables 30
2. Graphic expression of distribution of observations 30
3. Correction of preliminary curves for experimental error 31
4. Establishment of final curves and development of their expressions
by empirical formulae 42
5. Computation of final tables 45
6. Computation of the growth of the external dimensions of the body
with respect to age in the fetal period 47
7. Computation of the relative values of the external dimensions of
the body on the basis of the total or crown-heel body-length.... 49
8. Computation of analytic indices for various external bodily
dimensions in the fetal period 52
9. Calculation of values as percentages of the sizes at birth and at
50 cm of crown-heel length 53
10. Construction of histograms illustrating the absolute and relative
changes in the external body-form in the fetal period 53
11. Graphic and tabular comparisons of the present findings with
those of other investigators in this field , 54
IV. SCHEME EMPLOYED IN THE PRESENTATION OF THE SUMMARIES OF
FINDINGS .- 54
vi CONTENTS
PART II. A SUMMARY OF PREVIOUS STUDIES OF EXTERNAL
DIMENSIONS OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN
PAGE
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 56
II. ABSTRACTS OF PREVIOUS STUDIES 58
PART III. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE MAJOR EXTERNAL
DIMENSIONS OF THE BODY
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 75
II. CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS 75
1. Sitting-height (crown-rump length) 75
2. Spine length 78
3. Distance from crown to umbilicus 79
4. Distance from crown to sternal notch 82
III. RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS ON THE MAJOR EXTERNAL
DIMENSIONS OF THE BODY 84
PART IV. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMEN-
SIONS OF THE HEAD AND NECK
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 92
II. CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS 92
5. Occipito-frontal (horizontal) circumference of the head 92
6. Occipito-frontal diameter 96
7. Suboccipito-bregmatic circumference 99
8. Suboccipito-bregmatic diameter 102
9. Suboccipito-frontal circumference 104
10. Suboccipito-frontal diameter 107
11. Occipito-mental circumference 109
12. Occipito-mental diameter 110
13. Large circumference (menton-lambda) 113
14. Bi-parietal diameter 116
15. Auriculo-vertex-auricular circumference 117
16. Vertical-auriculo-yertex distance 120
17. Suboccipito-vertex-nasion circumference 121
18. Menton-bregma diameter 122
19. Bi-malar diameter 123
20. Bi-auricular diameter 125
21. Auriculo-vertex diameter 126
22. Nasion-menton distance (height of face) 127
23. Crown-menton distance (vertical head height) 129
24. Orbito-auricular distance 131
25. Orbito-auriculo-suboccipital diameter 132
26. Circumference of neck 133
III. RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS
OF THE HEAD AND NECK 135
CONTENTS vii
PART V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMEN-
SIONS OF THE TRUNK
PAGE
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 152
II. CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS 152
27. Bi-acromial diameter 152
28. Nipple to nipple distance 154
29. Bi-deltoid circumference 156
30. Bi-deltoid diameter 157
31. Circumference of thorax at nipples 158
32. Transverse diameter of thorax at nipples 160
33. Antero-posterior diameter of thorax at nipples 163
34. Circumference of thorax at xiphi-sternal junction 164
35. Transverse diameter of thorax at xiphi-sternal junction 165
36. Antero-posterior diameter of thorax at xiphi-sternal junction 166
37. Circumference of abdomen at tenth rib 167
38. Transverse diameter of abdomen at tenth rib 168
39. Antero-posterior diameter of abdomen at tenth rib
40. Circumference of abdomen at umbilicus 171
41. Transverse diameter of abdomen at umbilicus 172
42. Antero-posterior diameter of abdomen at umbilicus 173
43. Sternal notch to pubis 174
44. Sternal notch to umbilicus 176
45. Sternal notch to xiphi-sternal junction 178
46. Xiphi-sternal junction to pubis 179
47. Xiphi-sternal junction to umbilicus 180
48. Umbilicus to pubis 181
III. RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL
DIMENSIONS OF THE TRUNK 182
PART VI. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMEN-
SIONS OF THE PELVIS
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 198
II. CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS 198
49. Height of pelvis (crest of ilium to rump) 198
50. Interspinous diameter of pelvis 199
51. Intercristal diameter of pelvis 201
52. Intertrochanteric diameter of pelvis 203
53. External conjugate diameter of pelvis (Diameter of Baudelocque) 205
54. Bi-tuberous distance of pelvis 206
III. RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS
OF THE PELVIS 207
PART VII. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMEN-
SIONS OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 215
170
viii CONTENTS
PAGE
II. CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS 215
55. Upper extremity length 215
56. Length of arm (acromion to elbow) 218
57. Length of forearm 220
58. Length of hand 222
le . lethth th of middle fingerrr
60. Circumference of arm 225
61. Circumference of forearm 226
62. Circumference of wrist 227
III. RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS
OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY 228
PART VIII. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMEN-
SIONS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY
I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 237
II. CONSIDERATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS 237
63. Lower extremity length 237
64. Length of thigh (posterior superior spine of ilium to knee) 240
65. Length of thigh (trochanter to knee) 241
66. Length of leg 242
67. Height of foot 244
68. Length of foot 245
69. Circumference of thigh 247
70. Circumference of calf 248
III. RESUME AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS ON THE EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS
OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY 249
PART IX. GENERAL DISCUSSION
I. THE GROWTH OF THE EXTERNAL BODILY DIMENSIONS WITH RESPECT
TO THE TOTAL BODY-LENGTH 259
II. THE APPLICATION OF THE PRESENT FINDINGS TO THE "LAW OF
DEVELOPMENTAL DIRECTION" 267
III. DIMENSIONAL GROWTH WITH RESPECT TO AGE IN THE FETAL PERIOD 271
IV. VARIABILITY OF THE EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS OF THE BODY IN THE
FETAL PERIOD 277
V. SEX DIFFERENCES IN EXTERNAL BODILY DIMENSIONS IN THE FETAL
PERIOD 279
PART X. GENERAL SUMMARY
I. OUTLINE OF MATERIAL AND METHODS 281
II. ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE 283
III. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 283
224
227
CONTENTS ix
PAGE
IV. DIGEST OP FINDINGS REGARDING THE SPECIAL REGIONS OF THE BODY 285
1. The major external dimensions '. 285
2. The head and neck 286
3. The trunk 287
4. The pelvis 289
5. The upper extremity 290
6. The lower extremity 292
PART XI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 294
PART XII. TABLES OF EMPIRICAL FORMULAE AND THEIR
RESIDUALS 309
PART XIII. TABLES OF DATA OF OTHER INVESTIGATORS ON
THE EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS OF THE BODY IN
THE FETAL PERIOD 321
PART XIV. GENERAL GRAPHS AND FIGURES 334
PART XV. FIELD GRAPHS 341