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Principles of Autonomic-Somatic Integrations

Physiological Basis and Psychological and Clinical Implications

Author:

Ernst Gellhorn

Principles of Autonomic-Somatic Integrations
Principles of Autonomic-Somatic Integrations

Ernst Gellhorn was a professor of neurophysiology at the University of Minnesota. He is the author of eight other books, two of which have been published by the University of Minnesota Press. They are Autonomic Imbalance and the Hypothalamus and Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry.

Principles of Autonomic-Somatic Integrations

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION 3
CHAPTER I. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BASIC PATTERNS OF ERGOTROPIC
AND TROPHOTROPIC REACTIONS 5
I. The activation of the Ergotropic and Trophotropic Systems through Spinal
Reflexes, 5; II. The Trophotropic and Ergotropic Systems at Supraspinal Levels,
8; 1. Some Basic Observations on Hypothalamic Functions, 9; 2. Arousal from
Reticular Formation and Related Structures, 11; 3. On the Psychophysiology of
Arousal, 13; 4. The Trophotropic Supraspinal System, 14; 5. On the Separability
of Trophotropic and Ergotropic Effects, 17; 6. The Behavior of Single Neurons
in Evoked States of Synchronization and Desynchronization of the Cerebral
Cortex, 20; 7. Brain Stem and Ergotropic and Trophotropic Balance, 22; III. Re-
ciprocal Relations and Related Problems, 24; 1. Reciprocal Ergotropic-Tropho-
tropic Relations at the Spinal and Medullary Levels, 24; 2. Reciprocity at the
Hypothalamic Level, 24; 3. Reciprocal Relations between Extrahypothalamic
Ergotropic and Trophotropic Systems, 27; 4. Medullary Lesions and Hypo-
thalamic Ergotropic and Trophotropic Effects, 33; IV. Concluding Remarks, 33;
V. Summary, 37
CHAPTER II. PHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ERGOTROPIC AND TROPHO-
TROPIC IMBALANCES; APPLICATION TO VARIOUS STATES OF CONSCIOUS-
NESS 40
I. Deviations in Autonomic Nervous Functions from the Principle of Reciprocity,
40; 1. Observations on Reflexes and Hypothalamic Stimulation, 40; 2. Changes
in Internal Environment, 41; 3. Further Examples, 43; 4. The Ergotropic
and Trophotropic Systems and Deprivation of Sleep, 45; II. Dominance of the
Trophotropic System, 47; 1. The "Tuning" of the Hypothalamus, 47; 2. Auto-
nomic Balance in Sensory Deprivation, 49; 3. Narcolepsy, 49; III. Interpretation,
52; IV. Dissociations between the Upward and Downward Discharges of the
Ergotropic System, 53; 1. Mental Activity and the Striated Muscles, 53; 2. The
Yoga Trance and the Significance of Muscular Relaxation, 54; 3. Paradoxical
Sleep, 55; 4. Depression of Cortical and Release of Ergotropic Functions, 59;
V. Dissociation between Reticular and Hypothalamic Upward Discharges,
61; 1. Hypnosis, 61; VI. Discussion and Conclusions, 65; VII. Appendix. Prob-
lems of Homeostasis, 68
xi
xii Autonomic-Somatic Integrations
CHAPTER III. THE ROLE OF THE ERGOTROPIC AND TROPHOTROPIC SYS
TEMS IN CONDITIONING 71
I. Some Characteristics of the Conditional Response, 71; II. Electroencephalo-
graphic Changes during Conditioning, 72; III. Cortico-Cortical Conditioning,
76; IV. The Role of Subcortical Structures, 78; V. Influence of Hypothalamic
and Reticular Lesions on Conditioning, 79; VI. Convulsions and Conditioned
Reflexes, 82; VII. Hypothalamic Stimulation and Conditional Reflexes, 83; VIII.
Conditioning, Self-Stimulation, and Spreading Depression, 84; IX. Hypotha-
lamic-Cortical and Thalamo-Cortical Discharges in Conditioning, 87; X. Limbic
Brain and Conditioning, 89; XL Observations on Hormonal Secretion and Con-
ditioning, 91; 1. The Adrenal Cortex, 93; 2. The Adrenal Medulla, 97; XII. Some
Observations on Drugs, Neurohumors, and Conditioning, 98; XIII. Reinforced
Conditional Stimuli and the Ergotropic System, 101; XIV. Internal Inhibition
and the Trophotropic System, 104; XV. Ergotropic-Trophotropic Balance and
Conditioning, 110; XVI. Concluding Remarks and Summary, 111
CHAPTER IV. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSIS AND OF
STATES OF ANXIETY 116
I. Physiology of Experimental Neurosis, 117; 1. The Production of Experimental
Neurosis, 117; 2. Conditioned Responses during Experimental Neurosis and
Related States, 119; 3. General Symptomatology of the Experimental Neurosis,
121; 4. The Hypothalamic System in Experimental Neurosis and Related Con-
ditions, 122; 5. Physiological Mechanism Underlying Neurosis-Producing Proce-
dures, 124; 6. Pavlov's Phasic (Hypnotic) Phenomena, 129; 7. The Physiological
Basis of the Excitatory and the Inhibitory Form of Experimental Neurosis, 131;
II. Physiological Differentiation between Acute Fear, Subacute Fear, and
Chronic Anxiety, 133; 1. Physiological Basis of Acute Fear, 133; 2. Subacute
States of Fear, 133; 3. Anxiety, 138; III. Physiological Considerations Concern-
ing the Therapy of Neuroses, 139; 1. Experimental Neurosis, 139; 2. Clinical
Neurosis, 140; IV. Conditioning Processes in Abnormal Mental States, 143;
V. Summary, 148
CHAPTER V. ASPECTS OF RETICULO-SOMATIC INTERACTIONS 150
I. Effect of Reticular Formation on the Motor System, 150; 1. Facilitation of
Movements through the Reticulo-Hypothalamic System, 150; 2. Pain and Move-
ments, 152; 3. Facilitation of Convulsive Discharges, 155; II. Interrelations
between the Sensory and the Reticular Systems, 156; III. The Contribution of
Afferent Impulses to the Emotions, 160; 1. Posture and Mood, 160; 2. Facial
Movements and Emotions, 162; 3. The Significance of Loss of Facial Expression,
165; 4. On Empathy, 167; IV. Emotion and Perception, 168; V. Summary,
170
CHAPTER VI. PHYSIOLOGICAL COLLISIONS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CON-
FLICTS 173
I. Physiological Collisions Involving the Nutritive Reflex, 173; II. Further
Examples of Physiological Collisions, 176; III. Collision of Physiological Proc-
esses Underlying Instincts, 178; IV. Substitutive Behavior, 180; V. Psychological
Conflicts, 181; VI. Summary, 182
Table of Contents xiii
CHAPTER VII. PATTERNS OF ERGOTROPIC DISCHARGES 183
I. Sympathetico-Adrenal Discharge, 184; II. The Physiological Significance of
Adrenomedullary Secretion, 185; III. Sympathetic Vasodilatation as Part of the
Sympathetico-Adrenal Discharge, 188; IV. The Transition of Sympathetic to
Sympathetico-Adrenal Activity, 191; V. Partial Ergotropic Discharges in Man
and Animals, 194; VI. Insulin Hypoglycemia and Related Conditions, 197; VII.
The Ergotropic Discharge in the Paradoxical Phase of Sleep, 198; VIII. Inter-
mediate Summary and Interpretation, 199; IX. Intraergotropic Adjustment Re-
actions, 206; X. Variations in the Cortical Activation Pattern Originating in
Hypothalamus and Reticular Formation, 209; XL Concluding Remarks, 212
CHAPTER VIII. INTERNAL SECRETIONS AND THE ERGOTROPIC AND
TROPHOTROPIC SYSTEMS .215
I. The Thyroid Gland, 215; II. Hypothalamic Balance and ACTH, 220; III.
Hypothalamus and Sexual Functions, 222; IV. Interpretation and Summary, 224
CHAPTER IX. THE ROLE OF THE NEUROHUMORS IN
SLEEP AND AROUSAL 227
I. Adrenaline and the Initiation of Arousal, 227; II. Some Pharmacological Ob-
servations, 228; III. Adrenaline, Acetylcholine, and the Brain Stem, 231; IV. On
the Biochemical Basis of Sleep, 232; V. Further Studies on the Action of
Acetylcholine on Sleep, 233; VI. Acetylcholine, Noradrenaline, and Arousal,
235; VII. Some Unresolved Problems, 235; VIII. The Neurohumoral Transfer
of Sleep and Arousal, 238; IX. Concluding Remarks, 239; X. Summary, 242
CHAPTER X. BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS 244
I. The Ergotropic and Trophotropic Systems and Behavior, 244; II. Self-Stimu-
lation and the Trophotropic-Ergotropic Systems, 248
REFERENCES 253
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX 299
INDEX 311