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Native Orchids of Minnesota

2012
Author:

Welby R. Smith

Native Orchids of Minnesota

An updated and revised edition of the only comprehensive guide to Minnesota orchids, with four new species, two new varieties, new maps, and new illustrations.

Though often considered exotic and rare, orchids can be found across climates and continents—and Minnesota is no exception, with forty-nine wild orchids. Native Orchids of Minnesota features detailed drawings and color photographs that make reliable identification practical even for beginners—a guide and a resource for the serious naturalist, the weekend botanist, and the connoisseur of natural beauty.

For most anyone who has spent time in the forests or prairies of Minnesota, some of the orchids in the book will be familiar, while others — like the calypso or the bog adder’s mouth — might only be found in the wild once in a lifetime. It’s guaranteed to get the naturalist in all of us thinking about our next foray into the swamp, pine stand, or prairie. And even if you’ll never find some of these in the wild, the glossy, full color photos make each of them come alive.

Ely Timberjay

Though often considered exotic and rare, orchids actually can be found across climates and continents—and Minnesota is no exception. The state is home to forty-nine wild orchids, occurring in every county. With a little patience, a modicum of outdoor experience, and this handy book, any Minnesotan can discover the common species of orchids in the wild.

Native Orchids of Minnesota features detailed drawings and color photographs that make reliable identification practical even for beginners. In-depth discussions of habitats and natural history for each species reveal intricate ecological relationships and seldom-seen aspects of orchid biology. The book includes distribution maps for each species of wild orchid found in Minnesota as well as maps showing generalized distribution throughout North America. It also contains a phenology chart depicting the range of flowering dates and a comprehensive glossary of terms.

Native Orchids of Minnesota is both a guide and a resource for the serious naturalist, the weekend botanist, and the connoisseur of natural beauty.

Native Orchids of Minnesota

Welby R. Smith is the state botanist with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources in St. Paul. He is the author of Trees and Shrubs of Minnesota and a contributor to Minnesota’s Endangered Flora and Fauna, both published by Minnesota.

Native Orchids of Minnesota

For most anyone who has spent time in the forests or prairies of Minnesota, some of the orchids in the book will be familiar, while others — like the calypso or the bog adder’s mouth — might only be found in the wild once in a lifetime. It’s guaranteed to get the naturalist in all of us thinking about our next foray into the swamp, pine stand, or prairie. And even if you’ll never find some of these in the wild, the glossy, full color photos make each of them come alive.

Ely Timberjay

An outstanding guide to this special flora ... This book is the perfect way to learn more about native orchids, thanks to a well-written text matched with an abundance of useful illustrations.

Current Books on Gardening & Botany

This expanded new edition...adds significant value, taking advantage of current technological as well as scientific advances.

Choice

Native Orchids of Minnesota is both a guide and a resource for the serious naturalist, the weekend botanist, and the connoisseur of natural beauty.

Northeastern Naturalist

Nineteen years after publishing Orchids of Minnesota, the author has published an updated, comprehensive, and beautifully illustrated new volume, Native Orchids of Minnesota. Most orchid fanciers will find themselves totally enchanted by the “reading and admiring” process.

Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas

Native Orchids of Minnesota

Contents

Minnesota County Map
Preface
Introduction
Frequently Asked Questions
Key to the Genera of Orchids Found in Minnesota

Genus Amerorchis
Amerorchis rotundifolia
(round-leaved orchid)

Genus Aplectrum
Aplectrum hyemale
(putty-root)

Genus Arethusa
Arethusa bulbosa
(dragon’s-mouth)

Genus Calopogon (grass-pinks)
Calopogon oklahomensis (Oklahoma grass-pink)
Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus (tuberous grass-pink)

Genus Calypso
Calypso bulbosa
var. americana (fairy-slipper)

Genus Coeloglossum
Coeloglossum viride
(long-bracted orchid)

Genus Corallorhiza (coral-root)
Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata (spotted coral-root)
Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis (western spotted coral-root)
Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. odontorhiza (autumn coral-root)
Corallorhiza striata var. striata (striped coral-root)
Corallorhiza trifida (early coral-root)

Genus Cypripedium (lady’s-slippers)
Cypripedium acaule (stemless lady’s-slipper)
Cypripedium arietinum (ram’s-head lady’s-slipper)
Cypripedium candidum (small white lady’s-slipper)
Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin (northern small yellow lady’s-slipper)
Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (large yellow lady’s-slipper)
Cypripedium reginae (showy lady’s-slipper)

Genus Epipactis
Epipactis helleborine
(broad-leaved helleborine)

Genus Galearis
Galearis spectabilis
(showy orchis)

Genus Goodyera (rattlesnake-plantains)
Goodyera pubescens (downy rattlesnake-plantain)
Goodyera repens (lesser rattlesnake-plantain)
Goodyera tesselata (tessellated rattlesnake-plantain)

Genus Liparis (twayblade orchids)
Liparis liliifolia (lily-leaved twayblade)
Liparis loeselii (Loesel’s twayblade)

Genus Listera (twayblades)
Listera auriculata (auricled twayblade)
Listera convallarioides (broad-leaved twayblade)
Listera cordata (heart-leaved twayblade)

Genus Malaxis (Adder’s-mouth orchids)
Malaxis monophyllos var. brachypoda (white adder’s-mouth)
Malaxis paludosa (bog adder’s-mouth
Malaxis unifolia (green adder’s-mouth)

Genus Platanthera (bog orchids or rein orchids)
Platanthera aquilonis (northern green bog-orchid)
Platanthera clavellata (small green wood-orchid)
Platanthera dilatata var. dilatata (tall white bog-orchid)
Platanthera flava var. herbiola (tubercled rein-orchid)
Platanthera hookeri (Hooker’s orchid)
Platanthera huronensis (tall green bog-orchid)
Platanthera lacera (ragged fringed orchid)
Platanthera obtusata var. obtusata (bluntleaved rein-orchid)
Platanthera orbiculata (lesser roundleaved orchid)
Platanthera praeclara (western prairie fringed orchid)
Platanthera psycodes (small purple fringed orchid)

Genus Pogonia
Pogonia ophioglossoides
(rose pogonia)

Genus Spiranthes (Ladies’-tresses orchids)
Spiranthes casei var. casei (Case’s ladies’-tresses)
Spiranthes cernua (nodding ladies’-tresses)
Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis (southern slender ladies’-tresses)
Spiranthes lacera var. lacera (northern slender ladies’-tresses)
Spiranthes magnicamporum (Great Plains ladies’-tresses)
Spiranthes romanzoffiana (hooded ladies’-tresses)

Phenology of Minnesota Orchids
Glossary
Bibliography
Index