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Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates

Revised and Updated Edition

2011
Authors:

Debbie Lonnee, Nancy Rose, Don Selinger, and John Whitman
Foreword by Edward R. Hasselkus

Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates

An all-in-one guide for northern gardeners seeking the perfect woody plants

This easy-to-use, completely updated edition of Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates provides all the information needed to select the trees and shrubs ideally suited to your area’s growing conditions. A five-star rating system will help you choose the best plants, and detailed lists of suppliers show you where to locate them.

Whatever one’s garden’s status—a new yard, a landscape under renovation, or a flimsy flower bed that needs some fortification—this book offers cold-weather comfort that northern gardeners will warm to. Written by gloves-on horticulturists who live in Minnesota, the well-organized text scrimps nowhere.

Publishers Weekly

This completely updated edition of Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates now features:

• more than 950 varieties proven to thrive in cold climates
• hundreds of new selections for multi-season interest
• trees and shrubs with edible fruits and berries
• guidance on exactly when, where, and how to prune

This easy-to-use guide provides all the information needed to select the trees and shrubs ideally suited to your area’s growing conditions. A five-star rating system will help you choose the best plants, and detailed lists of suppliers show you where to locate them.

Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates

Debbie Lonnee, a thirty-year veteran of the nursery industry, works for Bailey Nurseries in Newport, Minnesota. She is a prolific garden writer and lecturer and the horticulture editor for Northern Gardener.

Nancy Rose is a professional garden writer and photographer and the editor of Arnoldia, the quarterly magazine of Harvard University’s Arnold Arboretum. She is a regular contributor to such publications as Fine Gardening, Northern Gardener, Gardening How-To, and the Minneapolis–St. Paul Star Tribune.

Don Selinger worked at Bailey Nurseries in Newport, Minnesota, for nearly forty years. He has traveled extensively in the United States, Canada, and Europe to seek out new plants for the nursery trade, and he has contributed to the St. Paul Pioneer Press and Northern Gardener.

John Whitman is a garden writer and photographer. He is the coauthor of Growing Perennials in Cold Climates and Growing Roses in Cold Climates, both in new editions from the University of Minnesota Press.

Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates

Whatever one’s garden’s status—a new yard, a landscape under renovation, or a flimsy flower bed that needs some fortification—this book offers cold-weather comfort that northern gardeners will warm to. Written by gloves-on horticulturists who live in Minnesota, the well-organized text scrimps nowhere.

Publishers Weekly

This book will save novice gardeners years of trial-and-error disappointment, while seasoned gardeners will wish they’d had it years ago.

Booklist

Growing Shrubs and Small Trees in Cold Climates

Contents

Foreword Edward R. Hasselkus
Acknowledgments
Introduction

Part I. The Most Popular Shrubs and Small Trees
1. Individual Listings
Abies 8
Acer 13
Amelanchier 20
Aronia 27
Berberis 32
Buxus 38
Caragana 43
Cercis 47
Chionanthus 52
Clethra 56
Cornus 61
Corylus 70
Cotinus 76
Cotoneaster 81
Daphne 87
Diervilla 92
Euonymus 96
Exochorda 103
Forsythia 107
Hamamelis 114
Hydrangea 120
Ilex 129
Juniperus 135
Lonicera 143
Magnolia 150
Malus 157
Microbiota 169
Paeonia 173
Perovskia 184
Philadelphus 189
Physocarpus 194
Picea 199
Pinus 205
Potentilla 211
Prunus 217
Pyrus 226
Rhododendron 234
Rhus 245
Ribes 253
Salix 259
Sorbus 267
Spiraea 273
Symphoricarpos 283
Syringa 289
Taxus 301
Thuja 306
Vaccinium 312
Viburnum 321
Weigela 331
Wisteria 338

Shrubs and Small Trees by Common Name [side bar]
Apple (see Malus) 157
Arborvitae (see Thuja) 306
Arrowwood (see Viburnum) 321
Azalea (see Rhododendron) 234
Barberry (see Berberis) 32
Blueberry (see Vaccinium) 312
Boxwood (see Buxus) 38
Bridal Wreath (see Spiraea) 273
Burning Bush (see Euonymus) 96
Bush Cinquefoil (see Potentilla) 211
Bush Honeysuckle (see Diervilla) 92
Cardinal Bush (see Weigela) 331
Cherry (see Prunus) 217
Chokeberry (see Aronia) 27
Chokecherry (see Prunus) 217
Coralberry (see Symphoricarpos) 283
Crabapple (see Malus) 157
Currant (see Ribes) 253
Dogwood (see Cornus) 61
Filbert (see Corylus) 70
Fir (see Abies) 8
Flowering Almond (see Prunus) 217
Fringe Tree (see Chionanthus) 52
Hazelnut (see Corylus) 70
Highbush Cranberry (see Viburnum) 321
Holly (see Ilex) 129
Honeysuckle (see Lonicera) 143
Hortensia (see Hydrangea) 120
Inkberry (see Ilex) 129
Juneberry (see Amelanchier) 20
Juniper (see Juniperus) 135
Lilac (see Syringa) 289
Maple (see Acer) 13
Mockorange (see Philadelphus) 189
Mountain Ash (see Sorbus) 267
Nannyberry (see Viburnum) 321
Ninebark (see Physocarpus) 194
Old Man’s Beard (see Chionanthus) 52
Pear (see Pyrus) 226
Pearlbush (see Exochorda) 103
Peashrub (see Caragana) 43
Petites Poires (see Amelanchier) 20
Pine (see Pinus) 205
Plum (see Prunus) 217
Possum Haw (see Ilex) 129
Purple Leaf Sand Cherry (see Prunus) 217
Redbud (see Cercis) 47
Russian Arborvitae (see Microbiota) 169
Russian Cypress (see Microbiota) 169
Russian Sage (see Perovskia) 184
Sarvisberry (see Amelanchier) 20
Sarvis-tree (see Amelanchier) 20
Saskatoon Berry (see Amelanchier) 20
Serviceberry (see Amelanchier) 20
Shadblow (see Amelanchier) 20
Shadbush (see Amelanchier) 20
Shrub Cinquefoil (see Potentilla) 211
Siberian Carpet Cypress (see Microbiota) 169
Smokebush (see Cotinus) 76
Smoketree (see Cotinus) 76
Snowberry (see Symphoricarpos) 283
Spiked Alder (see Clethra) 56
Spindle Tree (see Euonymus) 96
Spirea (see Spiraea) 273
Spruce (see Picea) 199
Sumac (see Rhus) 245
Sweet Pepperbush (see Clethra) 56
Summersweet (see Clethra) 56
Tree Peony (see Paeonia) 173
Wayfaringtree (see Viburnum) 321
Wahoo (see Euonymus) 96
White Cedar (see Thuja) 306
White Forsythia (see Forsythia) 107
White Fringe Tree (see Chionanthus) 52
Willow (see Salix) 259
Winterberry (see Ilex) 129
Wintercreeper (see Euonymus) 96
Witch Hazel (see Hamamelis) 114
Yew (see Taxus) 301

Part II. The Basics of Growing Shrubs and Small Trees 343
2. Selecting Shrubs and Small Trees 345
How Shrubs and Small Trees Grow 345
Buying Shrubs and Small Trees 346
Designing with Shrubs 348
Potential Uses 352
Basic Design Tips 354

3. Selecting and Preparing a Site 355
The Correct Site 355
Preparing the Site 355

4. Preparing the Planting Hole 357
What You Need to Know About Soil 357
Matching Shrubs and Small Trees to Soil 358

5. Planting Shrubs and Small Trees 361
Buying Shrubs and Small Trees 361
Buying Bare Root Plants 361
When to Buy Containerized Plants 366
Buying Balled & Burlapped Plants 369
Growing Shrubs in Containers 371
Spacing 374

6. Transplanting 375
When to Transplant 375
How to Transplant Shrubs and Small Trees 375

7. Caring for Shrubs and Small Trees 378
Water 378
Mulch 380
Fertilizing 381
Weeding 384
Staking 384
Deadheading 385
Pruning 385
Winter Protection 388

8. Solving Problems 389
Organic Disease Prevention and Insect Control 389
If You Must Spray 390
Chemical Insect and Disease Control 392
Physiological, Mechanical, and Nutritional Problems 400
Animal Problems 402

9. Propagating Shrubs and Small Trees 404
Division from Whole Plants 404
Division of Suckers 404
Ground Layering, Soil Layering, or Pegging 405
Mound Layering 405
Stem Cuttings 406
Root Cuttings 408
Budding and Grafting 409
Starting Plants from Seed 409
Tissue Culture, Micropropagation, In Vitro Propagation 412

10. Special Uses for Shrubs and Small Trees 413
Cut Stems for Flowers, Foliage, or Berries 413
Forcing 414
Dried Flowers, Foliage, and Stems 416
Berries and Fruit as Food 416

11. Tools and Supplies 417
Safety Tips 417
Tools and Supplies 417

Glossary 421