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Eastern Deciduous Forest

Ecology and Wildlife Conservation

2000
Author:

Richard H. Yahner

Eastern Deciduous Forest

An updated version of this popular reference.

This new edition includes the most up-to-date information on the forest and its wildlife, with special attention given to contemporary conservation issues. The result is a timely and useful tool for anyone who wants to know or hopes to help one of North America’s great natural resources.

A timely and informative resource for anyone who wants to know about or hopes to help one of America’s premier natural resources.

Northeastern Naturalist

From the East Coast to the Mississippi River, from southern Canada to northern Florida, the eastern deciduous forest of North America is home to a wonderfully diverse range of wildlife and ecosystems. Richard H. Yahner integrates basic biological principles into an account of the ecological consequences of society’s actions. As Yahner traces the history of conservation of the forest, he discusses relevant issues such as the loss of biodiversity, acid deposition, ozone depletion, and global climatic change. This new edition includes the most up-to-date information on the forest and its wildlife, with special attention given to contemporary conservation issues. The result is a timely and useful tool for anyone who wants to know or hopes to help one of North America’s great natural resources.

Awards

The first edition of this book received the Conservation Education Book Award from the Wildlife Society.

Eastern Deciduous Forest

Richard H. Yahner is associate dean of the graduate school and professor of wildlife conservation in the School of Forest Resources at Pennsylvania State University.

Eastern Deciduous Forest

A timely and informative resource for anyone who wants to know about or hopes to help one of America’s premier natural resources.

Northeastern Naturalist

A readable introduction to ecology and wildlife conservation in the eastern deciduous forest.

The Prairie Naturalist

Eastern Deciduous Forest is accessibly written for a broad audience. The breadth of material covered is extraordinary for such a short book.

Scott K. Robinson, Illinois Natural History Survey

Eastern Deciduous Forest

contents

preface

acknowledgments

1. the forest and its wildlife
Forests as a Resource
The Eastern Deciduous Forest
Ownership Patterns and Trends in Today’s Forest
Wildlife in Today’s Forest
Wildlife Management—Populations, Habitats, and People
2. early history of the forest
Origin of Modern Tree Species
Ice-Age Effects on the Eastern Deciduous Forest
Pre-European Forests in the Eastern United States
Forest Resource Use by Early European Settlers
Wildlife in the Original Forest
3. ecological processes
Ecology—The Study of Interrelationships
Abiotic Factors in the Eastern Deciduous Forest
Solar Radiation
Ambient Temperature
Soil Texture and Layers
Soil Nutrients
Soil-Water Relationships
Biotic Factors in the Eastern Deciduous Forest
Competition
Predation
4. forest plant and animal interactions
Plant Pollination
Seed Dispersal
Insects and Fungi as Forest Pests
Gypsy Moths—An Exotic Pest
Other Exotic Pests
Native Insect Pests
Large Mammals as Forest Pests
White-Tailed Deer
Other Large Mammals
Human-Wildlife Diseases
Lyme Disease
Rabies
Hantavirus
5. forest succession and management
Forest Succession
Plant Succession
Animal Succession
Fire and Succession
Prevalence of Fires
Effects of Fires on Plants
Effects of Fires on Animals
Indirect Effects of Fires
Forest-Fire Policies
Timber Harvesting and Succession
Forest-Management Practices
Selective-Cutting Method: Single-Tree and Group-Tree Selection
Clear-Cutting Method
Shelterwood Method
Seed-Tree Method
Some Alternative Methods to Traditional Even-Aged Management
Thinning
Some Forest-Management Policies and Controversies
6. forest fragmentation
History of Forest Fragmentation
Forest Fragmentation and Wildlife Extinctions
Fragmentation and Forest Wildlife
Fragmentation and Long-Term Trends in Bird Populations
Effects of Forest Size on Select Species
Effects of Forest Isolation on Select Species
Forest Fragmentation and Fish Habitat
Forest Fragmentation and Changes in Microclimate
Radiation Fluxes and Fragmentation
Wind and Fragmentation
Water Flux and Fragmentation
Forest Fragmentation—How Big Is Enough?
7. corridors and edges in relation to fragmented forests
Corridors and Forest Fragmentation
Edges and Forest Fragmentation
History of the Edge Concept
Wildlife Species Benefited by Edge and Fragmentation
Some Representative Mammals Benefited by Edge and Fragmentation
Some Representative Birds Benefited by Edge and Fragmentation
Wildlife Species Negatively Affected by Edge and Fragmentation
Edges—A Wildlife Management Dilemma
Nest Predation on Forest Songbirds
Nest Parasitism by Cowbirds on Forest Songbirds
Program Developments for the Conservation of Migratory Birds
8. biodiversity and conservation
What Is Biodiversity?
Maintenance of Biodiversity Is a Concern
Biodiversity and Endangered Species Legislation
How Much Diversity Is Enough?
Biodiversity, Sustainability, and Ecosystem Management
Conservation of Biodiversity and Forest Management
Conservation Biology and Wildlife Management
9. atmospheric environmental concerns
The Earth’s Atmosphere: Weather and Climate
Factors Affecting Climate
Seasons and Earth-Sun Relationships
Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect
Global Climatic Change
Recent Trends in Climate in the United States
Predictions in Global Climatic Trends
Global Circulation and Regional Climate Models
Predicted Impacts of Global Climatic Change on Biota
Impacts on Plants
Impacts on Animals
Acid Deposition
Extent of the Acid Deposition Problem
Impacts on Plants and Soils
Impacts on Animals
Other Environmental Contaminants
Ozone
Effects of High Ozone Levels in the Troposphere
Effects of Low Ozone Levels in the Stratosphere
10. forests of the future: challenges and opportunities
Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Management
Forest Fragmentation
Education
Recreation
Regional and Global Influences

Concluding Remarks

appendix a. scientific names of animals and plants mentioned in the text
appendix b. glossary of terms used in the text

references

index